Microscopy of Different Microorganisms Cells and Tissues

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               The examination of minute objects utilizing a microscope, an instrument that provides an enlarged image of an object not visible to the naked eye. Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye).
Scientific study:
            It may refer to the Scientific method, a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, based on empirical or measurable evidence that is subject to the principles of logic and reasoning. Modern science is typically divided into three major branches that consist of the natural sciences (e.g. biology, chemistry, physics), which study nature in the broadest sense; the social sciences (e.g. psychology, sociology, economics) which study people and societies; and the formal sciences (e.g. mathematics, logic, etc).
            Bacteria are microscopic, single-celled organisms that thrive in diverse environments. These organisms can live in soil, the ocean, and inside the human gut. Humans’ relationship with bacteria is complex. Sometimes bacteria lend us a helping hand, such as by curdling milk into yogurt or helping with our digestion.
            Bacteria are classified into 5 groups according to their basic shapes: spherical (cocci), rod (bacilli), spiral (spirilla), comma (vibrios), or corkscrew (spirochaetes). They can exist as single cells, in pairs, chains, or clusters. Artwork of bacterial cells becoming resistant to antibiotics. It is a gel-like matrix composed of water, enzymes, nutrients, wastes, and gases and contains cell structures such as ribosomes, a chromosome, and plasmids. The cell envelope encases the cytoplasm and all its components. Unlike the eukaryotic (true) cells, bacteria do not have a membrane-enclosed nucleus.
                      Amoeba often called an amoeboid, is a type of cell or unicellular organism which has the ability to alter its shape, primarily by extending and retracting pseudopods. Amoeba is not a bacteria. Rather it is a protozoan. Amoeba is a genus of single-celled amoeboids in the family Amoebidae.  Pathogenic free-living amoebas and their brutal infections in humans. Pathogenic free-living amoebae are found in many natural and human-made microenvironments, mostly living by bacteria feeding. However, in certain situations, they can cause serious infections in humansAmoeba also spelled ameba, plural amoebas or amoebae, are any of the microscopic unicellular protozoans of the rhizopodan order Amoebida. The well-known type species, Amoeba proteus, is found on decaying bottom vegetation of freshwater streams and ponds.
                     It is a unicellular organism with a shape resembling the sole of a shoe. It ranges from 50 to 300um in size which varies from species to species. It is mostly found in a freshwater environment. It is a single-celled eukaryote belonging to the kingdom Protista and is a well-known genus of ciliate protozoa. Paramecia feed on microorganisms like bacteria, algae, and yeasts. To gather food, the Paramecium makes movements with cilia to sweep prey organisms, along with some water, through the oral groove (vestibulum, or vestibule), and into the cell.
Paramecia are eukaryotes. In contrast to prokaryotic organisms, such as bacteria and archaea, eukaryotes have well-organized cells. The defining features of eukaryotic cells are the presence of specialized membrane-bound cellular machinery called organelles and the nucleus, which is a compartment that holds DNA. Paramecium is a single-celled eukaryote, reminiscent of a football in shape, that belongs to the group of microorganisms known as the Protozoa. The protozoan inhabits freshwater bodies such as ponds. The organism is useful as a teaching tool for light microscopy.
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)
                         It is a virus that attacks cells that help the body fight infection, making a person more vulnerable to other infections and diseases. Cause. The HIV infection is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). … HIV is spread when blood, semen, or vaginal fluids from an infected person enter another person’s body, usually through sexual contact, from sharing needles when injecting drugs, or from mother to baby during birth.
Life Cycle:
                      The series of steps that HIV follows multiply in the body. The process begins when HIV encounters a CD4 cell. The seven steps in the HIV life cycle are: 
1) binding;
2) fusion; 
3) reverse transcription; 
4) integration; 
5) replication; 
6) assembly; and 
7) budding.
    A capsid containing the virus’s genome and proteins then enter the cell. … The viral DNA is transported across the nucleus, where the HIV protein integrase integrates the HIV DNA into the host’s DNA. The host’s normal transcription machinery transcribes HIV DNA into multiple copies of new HIV RNA.
                      also known informally as a phage is a virus that infects and replicates within bacteria and archaea. Bacteriophages kill bacteria by making them burst or lyse. This happens when the virus binds to the bacteria. A virus infects bacteria by injecting its genes (DNA or RNA). The phage virus copies itself (reproduces) inside the bacteria.
                     This bacteriophage type uses the lytic cycle for replication. The lysis or lytic cycle is a cytoplasmic viral replication process in which the bacteriophage injects its genetic material into a host cell, which allows this genetic material to the replica, producing many new phages. These stages include attachment, penetration, uncoating, biosynthesis, maturation, and release. Bacteriophages have a lytic or lysogenic cycle. The lytic cycle leads to the death of the host, whereas the lysogenic cycle leads to the integration of phage into the host genome. 
               An infective agent that typically consists of a nucleic acid molecule in a protein coat, is too small to be seen by light microscopy and can multiply only within the living cells of a host.
                 Viruses are named based on their genetic structure to facilitate the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and medicines. Virologists and the wider scientific community do this work, so viruses are named by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Shapes of viruses are predominantly of two kinds: rods, or filaments, so-called because of the linear array of the nucleic acid and the protein subunits; and spheres, which are actually 20-sided (icosahedral) polygons. Most plant viruses are small and are either filaments or polygons, as are many bacterial virusesvirus is an infectious agent of small size and simple composition that can multiply only in living cells of animals, plants, or bacteria. They range in size from about 20 to 400 nanometres in diameter (1 nanometre = 109 meters).
 Mustard Plant:
                           The mustard plant is a plant species in the genera Brassica and Sinapis in the family Brassicaceae. Mustard seed is used as a spice. … The seeds can also be pressed to make mustard oil, and the edible leaves can be eaten as mustard greensMustards, (Brassica spp.) are herbaceous annual plants in the family Brassicaceae grown for their seeds which are used as a spice. Mustard plants are thin herbaceous herbs with yellow flowers. … The yellow flowers grow in spike-like clusters of 2–12 flowers and individual flowers are 8 mm (0.3 in) in diameter.
                            Mustard, is any of several herbs belonging to the mustard family of plants, Brassicaceae (Cruciferae), or the condiment made from these plants‘ pungent seeds. The leaves and swollen leaf stems of mustard plants are also used, as greens, or potherbs. The type of roots present in mustard plants is taprootsMustardis a dicot plant. Therefore, the taproot system is present in mustard. The mustard root is classified as an annual and is a member of the Brassicaceae or Cruciferae family, botanically known as Brassica juncea. 
                       The mustard root is classified as an annual and is a member of the Brassicaceae or Cruciferae family, botanically known as Brassica juncea. While the Mustard plant is most commonly utilized for its greens and seeds, its large taproot has been gaining popularity on the culinary scene as a root vegetable.
Human Digestive System:
                      The process of digestion. The human digestive system consists primarily of the digestive tract or the series of structures and organs through which food and liquids pass during their processing into forms absorbable into the bloodstream. The system also consists of the structures through which wastes pass in the process of elimination and other organs that contribute juices necessary for the digestive process.
                      The human digestive system is the system used in the human body for the process of digestion. The human digestive system consists primarily of the digestive tract or the series of structures and organs through which food and liquids pass during their processing into forms absorbable into the bloodstream.
                            The function of the digestive system is digestion and absorption. Digestion is the breakdown of food into small molecules, which are then absorbed into the body. The digestive system is divided into two major parts: The digestive tract (alimentary canal) is a continuous tube with two openings: the mouth and the anusDigestion is important because your body needs nutrients from food and drink to work properly and stay healthy. … Your digestive system breaks nutrients into parts small enough for your body to absorb and use for energy, growth, and cell repair. The digestive system has three main functionsdigestion of food, absorption of nutrients, and elimination of solid food waste. Digestion is the process of breaking down food into components the body can absorb. It consists of two types of processes: mechanical digestion and chemical digestion.
Digestive System Of Hydra:
                  Hydras have a very simple digestive tract, similar to most other cnidarians. Unlike mammals, they have a two-way digestive tract, where food enters and waste exits through the same opening. This arrangement is called a “blind gut.” This digestive tract takes up space in the middle of the body of the hydra.
Digestive System of Cockroach:
                 The alimentary canal starts with the foregut which comprises the mouth and surrounded parts of the mouth. The cavity of the mouth is known as the pharynx. The foregut extends in the form of the esophagus which has a thin wall(narrow) structure.
Pitcher plants:
                Several different carnivorous plants have modified leaves known as pitfall traps—a prey-trapping mechanism featuring a deep cavity filled with digestive liquid. The traps of what are considered to be “true” pitcher plants are formed by specialized leaves.
The largest of the meat-eating plants is a relative of the pitcher plant named Nepenthes. … Some Nepenthes pitchers that have been found are large enough to hold four quarts of liquid. The Nepenthes is not a threat to humans, however. In fact, local people have found ways to make them useful. The family Nepenthaceae consists of a single genus, Nepenthes, with some 140 species of tropical pitcher plants native to Madagascar, Southeast Asia, and Australia. Most of these species are perennials that grow in very acidic soil, though some are epiphytic and live on the branches of trees. Once open, pitchers stay alive for a period of from a few weeks to up to 9 months, depending on the species and, probably, environmental factors (Clarke, 1997; Osunkoya et al., 2008). Most research on pitcher plants, however, has not considered that the trapping function could change over the lifetime of a pitcher.
                  A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton in animals. Bones protect the various organs of the body, produce red and white blood cells, store minerals, provide structure and support for the body, and enable mobility.
              Bone is the substance that forms the skeleton of the body. It is composed chiefly of calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate. … The 206 bones in the body serve several other purposes. They support and protect internal organs (for example, the skull protects the brain and the ribs protect the lungs). Bones are composed of two types of tissue:
  • A hard outer layer is called cortical (compact) bone, which is strong, dense, and tough. 
  • A spongy inner layer is called trabecular (cancellous) bone.
The human skeleton is made up of 206 bones, including bones of the:
  • Skull – including the jaw bone.
  • Spine – cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, and tailbone (coccyx)
  • Chest – ribs, and breastbone (sternum)
  • Arms – shoulder blade (scapula), collar bone (clavicle), humerus, radius, and ulna.
The Diagram of Bone is Given Below
Article By Zaib Hassan
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